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A Citizen's Guide to the 4(d) Rule for Threatened Salmon and Steelhead on the West Coast

This Citizen's Guide to the 4(d) Rule introduces and explains the rule. It complements the final rule published in the Federal Register in June of 2000 by providing a more user-friendly description of why the rule is needed, what it contains, how it will affect citizens, and how to get more information.

A Guide to Placing Large Wood in Streams (PDF file - 890 KB)
Prepared by the Oregon Department of Forestry and the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
There have been many attempts to add large woody debris to streams, beginning in the 1930s with the help of Civilian Conservation Corps work crews. In the Midwest, many of these efforts have led to documented increases in fish production. However, many of the efforts in the Pacific Northwest have not increased fish production because the structures were not designed to handle the variation in flows and the greater stream slopes that occur in this region. This publication describes how Oregon landowners can lower their leave-tree requirements in riparian management areas by using proper techniques to place large woody debris in streams. May 1995

Adopt-A-Buffer Toolkit: Monitoring and Maintaining Restoration Projects (PDF file - 3.8 MB)
Delaware Riverkeeper Network
This manual was designed for the Adopt-A-Buffer Initiative and other programs that implement stream restoration projects. The Toolkit includes a menu of low-cost, effective monitoring protocols and maintenance fact sheets that can be used to ensure the success of stream restoration projects. September 2003

American Rivers

Delivers innovative solutions to improve river health; raise awareness among decision-makers; serve and mobilize the river conservation movement; and collaborate with our partners to develop a national "river agenda," which will create a unified vision for improving river health across the country.

Aquatic Habitat Guidelines: An Integrated Approach to Marine, Freshwater, and Riparian Habitat Protection and Restoration
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Washington Department of Transportation, and Washington Department of Ecology
These guidelines provide “how to” guidance that, while scientific in approach, can be used to assist property owners, planners, designers, and regulators in the protection and restoration of marine, freshwater, and riparian fish and wildlife habitat. April 2003. and used by volunteers, planners, designers and managers of aquatic restoration projects and facilities. Each guideline is based on current best science and technical practice surveyed in topical state-of-the-knowledge white papers or a thorough literature search. April 2003

Bioengineering for hillslope, streambank, and lakeshore erosion control
University of Nebraska Cooperative Extension
This NebGuide describes bioengineering techniques for hillslope, streambank and lakeshore erosion control. Tips for a successful bioengineering installation and demonstration project are described.

California Salmonid Stream Habitat Restoration Manual
Prepared by Gary Flosi, Scott Downie, James Hopelain, Michael Bird, Robert Coey, and Barry Collins; The Resources Agency, California Department of Fish and Game, Inland Fisheries Division
This manual formally explains and describes the California Department of Fish and Game’s ground level approach to restoration of fishery resources, and standardizes our descriptive terminology and technical methods. Principal emphasis is on salmon, steelhead, and trout; therefore this manual is principally intended to be used to assist in restoration efforts for those species in California. Although the process of habitat evaluation and basic restoration techniques are generally similar for California salmonids, their habitat preferences are frequently dissimilar. Therefore, applications must be selected that are suitable for the specific target species and life stage. The basic habitat assessment techniques are applicable for any fluvial fish species. Third Edition, February, 1998

Channel Restoration Design for Meandering Rivers (PDF file - 8 MB)
U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center
This report presents an enhanced channel design framework for restoring the channels of meandering rivers using a geomorphic engineering approach that is based on bringing together geomorphic principles and conventional river engineering methods. September 2001

Coastal Salmon Restoration: Working Guidance for Comprehensive Salmon Restoration Initiatives on the Pacific Coast (PDF file - 176 KB)
Prepared by the National Marine Fisheries Service
This is a working document developed by the Northwest and Southwest Regions of the National Marine Fisheries Service. This guidance was drafted to assist the Pacific Coast states, tribes, and other entities in taking the initiative for coastal salmon restoration. The NMFS is completing comprehensive status reviews on six species of salmonids on the Pacific Coast. The NMFS has found many Evolutionarily Significant Units (ESUs) to be so severely depressed that they have been (or are likely to be) proposed for listing as threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). Immediate, aggressive action is needed to protect these coastal salmonids from further decline, as well as sustained planning and action to rebuild and maintain them over the long term. September 15, 1996

Conservation Engineering Tools and Documents

Handbooks, technical releases, design notes, and various other documents and tools.

Controlling erosion using vegetation

This publication introduces general soil bioengineering practices to coastal property owners so that they may realize the practical and financial benefits of using vegetation to control erosion and help stabilize slopes.

Cows and Fish

Cows and Fish strives to foster a better understanding on how improvements in grazing management on riparian areas can enhance landscape health and productivity, for the benefit of cattle producers and others who use and value riparian areas.

Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage
Prepared by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife, Habitat and Lands Program, Environmental Engineering Division
Design of Road Culverts for Fish Passage serves as guide for property owners and engineers who are designing permanent road-crossing culverts to facilitate upstream fish migration. It provides guidance for projects involving new culvert construction as well as retrofitting or replacing existing culverts. The designer will need to have a working knowledge of hydraulic engineering, hydrology and soils/structural engineering to accomplish an appropriate design. May 2003

Designing highway culverts that do not impede the movements of resident fish species

The study at hand details the problems fish have in passing through existing culverts. The intent is to provide guidelines for installing culverts that eliminate fish passage problems and criteria for avoiding the use of culverts where they would cause passage problems.

Draft Guide to Watershed Planning & Management

The manual presents the requirements of the Watershed Management Act, but also goes further by offering a variety of suggestions for navigating the planning process to achieve the objectives stated in the law. January 1999

Ecological restoration: A tool to manage stream quality

The audience for this document is state water quality agency personnel and other water resource managers who have been implementing the Clean Water Act (CWA) over the past twenty years. This document explains and clarifies CWA authorities for restoration and examines linkages between selected restoration techniques and parameters that are often addressed in state water quality standards. The document also presents a decision-making guide for water resource managers to determine when to pursue restoration as a management option and provides information on the cost effectiveness of restoration.

Ecology Report: Setting instream flows in Washington State

This Ecology Report defines instream flows, explains why instream flows are important, describes instream flow methodology, explains the history of Ecology's instream flow program and the future direction of the program with watershed planning.

Effects of RipRap on Riverine and Riparian Ecosystems (PDF file - 4.3 MB)
U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program
Research was initiated under the Wetlands Regulatory Assistance Program to develop guidelines for the evaluation of the environmental impacts and benefits of riprap. The first step in this research was the formulation of an annotated bibliography of related publications that could serve as a basis for regional and site-specific evaluations, and that characterizes the current state of knowledge on this subject. This document presents the results of the literature review. April 2003

Engineering and Design - Guidelines for Landscape Planting and Vegetation Management at Floodwalls, Levees, and Embankment Dams

This manual provides criteria for the design of landscape plantings and vegetation management at floodwalls, levees, and embankment dams. It is intended as a guide for use for uniformly safe design and not as a restriction to the initiative of the designer. This manual encourages close coordination between the design team members, which include a civil engineer, environmental engineer, biologist, and landscape architect.

Equilibrium Geomorphological Conditions for High Gradient Streambeds (PDF file - 1.5 MB)
Prepared by A.N. Thanos Papanicolaou and Adam R. Maxwell, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Washington State University
This document explores the geomorphologic characteristics of streams with steep gradient (i.e. streams with slope greater than 3%) and identifies the hydraulic conditions under which stable geomorphologic conditions form. January 2000

Fish Passage Barrier and Surface Water Diversion Screening Assessment and Prioritization Manual
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
The purpose of the Fish Passage Barrier and Surface Water Diversion Screening Assessment and Prioritization Manual is to provide guidance on how to locate, assess, and prioritize fish passage problems (culverts, dams, and fishways) and surface water diversion screening problems. August 2000

Fish Stream Crossing Guidebook (PDF file - 2 MB)

This guidebook is designed to help forest and other resource managers and practitioners plan, prescribe, and implement sound forest practices for fish-stream crossings that comply with both the Forest Practices Code and the federal Fisheries Act.

FISHPASS program for culvert installations

FISHPASS provides the analytical capabilities to identify a culvert or parallel culverts that will pass weak swimming fish safely. The design procedure utilizes hydraulic formulas for profile drag, non-Archimedean buoyant forces, and virtual mass force to quantify the hydraulic conditions within a culvert that weak swimming fish can sustain without exhaustion.

Fishways - Design, operation, and Evaluation - Draft Publication (PDF file - 463 KB)
Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife
This publication describes guidelines for the design of fish passage facilities for upstream migrating fish and is the result of both formal studies and practical experience. This document is one of a series of documents that will make up the guidelines for salmon habitat protection and restoration in Washington state. April 2000

FishXing: Software and learning systems for the analysis of fish migration through culverts

FishXing is intended to assist engineers, hydrologists, and fish biologists in the design and evaluation of culverts for fish passage.

Guidance on Watershed Assessment for Salmon

This manual, released May 2001, will help watershed groups, state agencies, and others understand what kinds of assessment are needed to support decisions about projects to protect and restore habitat for salmon.

Guidelines for Electrofishing Waters Containing Salmonids Listed Under the Endangered Species Act (PDF file - 74 KB)

The purpose of this document is to provide guidelines for the safe use of backpack electrofishing in waters containing salmonids listed by the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) under the Endangered Species Act (ESA). June 2000

Habitat Rehabilitation for Inland Fisheries (PDF file - 1.84 MB)
Fisheries Department of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
This technical paper provides a global review of effectiveness and guidance for rehabilitation of freshwater ecosystems. 2005

Hydraulic Design of Stream Restoration Projects (PDF file - 11 MB)
U.S. Army Corp of Engineers Engineer Research and Development Center
The purpose of this document is to provide a systematic hydraulic design methodology to hydraulic engineers involved in stream restoration projects. The objective of the methodology is to fit the stream restoration project into the natural system within the physical constraints imposed by other project objectives and constraints. September 2001

Juvenile and Resident Salmonid Movement and Passage through Culverts (PDF file - 114 KB)
Prepared by Thomas H. Kahler and Thomas P. Quinn, Fisheries Research Institute, University of Washington
An outcome of the Washington State Department of Transportation’s Juvenile Fish Passage Workshop on September 24, 1997 was agreement that a literature review was necessary to determine the state of knowledge about juvenile salmonid movement and passage through culverts at road crossings. This report summarizes the findings of the literature review. Specific topics covered by this summary include the movements of juvenile and resident adult salmonids, culvert hydraulics, the ability of fish to pass through culverts, and salmonid swimming performance. July 1998

Juvenile fish screen criteria for pump intakes

This is a list of criteria that serve as an addendum to current National Marine Fisheries Service gravity intake juvenile fish screen criteria. These criteria apply to new pump intake screens and existing inadequate pump intake screens, as determined by fisheries agencies with project jurisdiction.

Montana Fish, Wildlife, and Parks - Future Fisheries

The 1995 Montana Legislature passed the Future Fisheries Improvement Program to restore essential habitats for the growth and propagation of wild fish populations in lakes, rivers and streams.

Montana Trout Unlimited

Trout Unlimited’s mission is to conserve, protect, and restore North America’s trout and salmon fisheries and their watersheds. The Montana Council is the coordinating body that establishes statewide policies for cold water fisheries management and protection.

National Fish Passage Program

The National Fish Passage Program uses a voluntary, non-regulatory approach to remove and bypass barriers. The Program addresses the problem of fish barriers on a national level, working with local communities and partner agencies to restore natural flows and fish migration.

National list of plant species that occur in wetlands

The Ecology Section is responsible for collecting and maintaining botanical and ecological information on wetlands. The Section develops, maintains, and distributes data bases and information on wetland vascular and non-vascular plants (bryophytes and lichens), plant communities, and hydric soils. Products and reports, such as the National List of Vascular Plant Species That Occur in Wetlands and the computer assisted wetland plant identification system (MARSH: Multiple Attribute Recognition System for Hydrophytes), aid in the identification and understanding of wetland systems.

National Marine Fisheries Service, Office of Habitat Conservation

The Office of Habitat Conservation interacts with the NOAA-Fisheries Regional Offices to manage, conserve, and enhance habitats for fishery resources, protected species, and other living marine resources.

Oregon Aquatic Habitat Restoration and Enhancement Guide (PDF file - 550 KB)
The Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds
This handbook is designed to facilitate and encourage habitat restoration across all land uses and ownerships. The guide allows for a range of restoration activities. This restoration guide is one of several documents available for planning restoration activities under the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds (OPSW). However, under Executive Order 99-01, the guidelines in this handbook establish the criteria for all restoration activities funded or authorized by state agencies. This guide, in conjunction with the Watershed Assessment, Watershed Restoration Plan guidelines and the OPSW Monitoring Plan, will facilitate restoration activities at the watershed scale. May 1999

Oregon Road and Stream Crossing Restoration Guide (PDF file - 6.7 MB)
Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife
The primary purpose of this guide is to provide guidelines to land and fish and wildlife managers that are assessing, planning, designing, or installing repairs or replacements for road/stream crossings under the Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds. June 1999

Partners for Fish and Wildlife Program

A program of the US Fish and Wildlife Service that provides financial and technical assistance to private landowners interested in restoring habitat on their lands.

Pictorial dictionary of terms relating to soil stabilization, slope and bank protection



Principles for the Ecological Restoration of Aquatic Resources

These principles focus on scientific and technical issues, but as in all environmental management activities, the importance of community perspectives and values should not be overlooked. The presence or absence of public support for a restoration project can be the difference between positive results and failure.

Private Landowner Network

Private Landowner Network is an Internet resource that has been designed to aggregate service providers and information to assist and facilitate voluntary private land conservation initiatives.

Publications from the Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory

Engineer research and development center virtual library.

Reference Guide to Salmon Recovery (PDF file - 606 KB)

This document is intended to clarify what salmon recovery means, what is happening, and who is involved at different geographic scales. This information will help people who are interested in salmon recovery and habitat conservation in their watershed better understand the broader context of salmon recovery. February 2002

Riparian Ecosystem Creation and Restoration

To provide a source of currently available literature, riparian ecosystem information from 92 records (primarily published papers or reports) in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Wetland Creation/Restoration (WCR) Data Base was used to develop a literature summary of riparian ecosystem creation and restoration. The summary provides an overview of the status of riparian ecosystems in the U.S., a discussion of several riparian functions, and a review of some techniques used for planning, implementing, monitoring, and measuring project success of riparian ecosystem creation/restoration efforts.

River corridor and wetland restoration

EPA river corridor and wetland restoration website

River Corridor and Wetland Restoration – Restoration Project Directory

The USEPA's Office of Research and Development, working jointly with the Office of Water, has put together a national inventory of ecological restoration projects. The database is broken down by state, and provides a brief summary of each project.

Roadmap for Salmon Habitat Conservation at the Watershed Level (PDF file - 1 MB)

This document will help local groups take steps needed for salmon habitat conservation in their watershed and relate their work to regional salmon recovery planning. It provides specific information on steps needed to conserve salmon habitat in a watershed. Information on how these steps can be taken is provided with the understanding that local groups can and will need to tailor these steps for their watershed. February, 2002

Searchable bibliography from the first Wood in World Rivers conference held October 2000 in Corvallis, Oregon, USA

Researchers in the United States, England, and Russia have assembled the first draft of a bibliography of wood in aquatic systems and riparian areas as part of the International Conference on Wood in World Rivers. This bibliography contains various sources of information that are available to the public and scientific community through journals, libraries, and agencies.

Soil Bioengineering

Soil bioengineering (SB) uses live plant materials to provide erosion control, slope and stream bank stabilization, landscape restoration, and wildlife habitat. These techniques are used alone or in conjunction with conventional engineering techniques.

Stream Channel Reference Sites: An Illustrated Guide to Field Technique (PDF file - 5 MB)
USDA Forest Service, Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station
This guide describes procedures for establishing permanent channel reference including selecting and mapping a site, measuring channel cross-sections, surveying a longitudinal profile, identifying bankfull stage, and measuring streamflow and bed material. April 1994

Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices
Prepared by the Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group
This document is a result of an unprecedented cooperative effort among fifteen Federal agencies and partners to produce a common reference on stream corridor restoration. It encapsulates the rapidly expanding body of knowledge related to stream corridors and their restoration. It makes no endorsement of one particular approach to restoration over another, nor is it intended as a policy document of any participating Federal agency. It includes the full range of possibilities facing restoration practitioners including no action or passive approaches, partial intervention for assisted recovery, and substantial intervention for managed recovery. The document encourages locally led, public involvement in restoration planning and implementation. Published October, 1998. Revised August, 2001

Streambank and Shoreline Protection - Engineering Field Handbook Ch. 16 (PDF file - 8.5 MB)
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service
Streambank and shoreline protection consists of restoring and protecting banks of streams, lakes, estuaries, and excavated channels against scour and erosion by using vegetative plantings, soil bioengineering, and structural systems. These systems can be used alone or in combination. The information in this chapter does not apply to erosion problems on ocean fronts, large river and lake systems, or other areas of similar scale and complexity. December 1996

Streambank revegetation and protection: A guide for Alaska

A variety of soil bioengineering techniques have been developed to protect and restore damaged streambanks for the benefit of fish. In each case, the selection of a specific technique depends largely on existing site conditions that dictate how, when and to what extent a given technique is applied.

StreamNet - Fish data for the Northwest

StreamNet is a cooperative information management and dissemination project focused on fisheries and aquatic related data in the Columbia River basin and the Pacific Northwest. The project provides a variety of kinds of data related to fish resources and maintains the 1:100,000 scale hydrography layer for the Pacific Northwest. Information is available through the on-line database query or by custom request.

The Oregon Plan

The Oregon Plan for Salmon and Watersheds represents an unprecedented undertaking on the part of the State of Oregon to restore our state's salmon and trout resources. The goal is to restore populations and fisheries to productive and sustainable levels that will provide substantial environmental, cultural, and economic benefits.

The Practical Streambank Bioengineering Guide
U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Service
This guide is a user's guide to natural stream stabilization techniques for the arid and semi-arid Great Basin and Intermountain West. This guide was produced primarily for the professional conservationist who provides technical resource assistance to individual landowners. The goal of this publication is to provide an easy to understand guide for coordinators of riparian restoration projects. May 1998

U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Fisheries and Habitat Conservation

The Office of Fisheries and Habitat Conservation is located in the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Headquarters in Washington, DC. There are four divisions within this office, including Management and Habitat Restoration, National Fish Hatchery System, Federal Program Activities, and Environmental Quality.

Viable Salmonid Populations and the Recovery of Evolutionarily Significant Units (PDF file - 1.25 MB)

The approach of the viable salmonid population (VSP) concept and this document is to define a viable population, describe techniques for determining population boundaries, identify parameters useful in evaluating population viability, and then set guidelines for assessing population viability status with regard to each of the parameters. Finally, guidelines are provided on how to relate individual population viability to the viability of the Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) as whole. The document is based primarily on a review and synthesis of the conservation biology and salmonid literature. A large portion of the document is an appendix devoted to describing the technical rationale behind the population definition and viability guidelines.

Washington Native Plants: Identifying, propagating, and landscaping

A database for identifying, propagating and landscaping with native plants.



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Updated: June 28, 2007
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